Metabolic alkalosis is defined as a disease state where the body’s pH is elevated to greater than 7.45 secondary to some metabolic process.
What happens during metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is defined as elevation of the body’s pH above 7.45. Metabolic alkalosis involves a primary increase in serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration, due to a loss of H+ from the body or a gain in HCO3-.
What is the common cause of metabolic alkalosis?
Key Points about Metabolic Alkalosis
The most common causes are volume depletion (particularly when involving loss of gastric acid and chloride (Cl) due to recurrent vomiting or nasogastric suction) and diuretic use. Metabolic alkalosis involving loss or excess secretion of Cl is termed chloride-responsive.
What is the best definition of metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is a condition that occurs when your blood becomes overly alkaline. Alkaline is the opposite of acidic. Our bodies function best when the acidic-alkaline balance of our blood is just slightly tilted toward the alkaline.
What is the treatment for alkalosis and acidosis?
Treatment of Alkalosis
Doctors rarely simply give acid, such as hydrochloric acid, to reverse the alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis is usually treated by replacing water and electrolytes (sodium and potassium) while treating the cause. Rarely, when metabolic alkalosis is very severe, dilute acid is given intravenously.
What are the signs of metabolic alkalosis?
Symptoms of alkalosis can include any of the following:
- Confusion (can progress to stupor or coma)
- Hand tremor.
- Muscle twitching.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Numbness or tingling in the face, hands, or feet.
- Prolonged muscle spasms (tetany)
How do you manage metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is corrected with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone or with other potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, amiloride, triamterene). If the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism is an adrenal adenoma or carcinoma, surgical removal of the tumor should correct the alkalosis.
What are three causes of metabolic acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis has three main root causes: increased acid production, loss of bicarbonate, and a reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete excess acids. Metabolic acidosis can lead to acidemia, which is defined as arterial blood pH that is lower than 7.35.
What is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis?
Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. Lactate accumulation results from a combination of excess formation and decreased metabolism of lactate. Excess lactate production occurs during states of anaerobic metabolism.
How can you prevent metabolic alkalosis?
Reduce your risk for developing alkalosis by maintaining good health, eating a healthy diet, and staying hydrated. Choosing foods high in nutrients and potassium can help combat electrolyte deficiencies. Nutrients and potassium are primarily found in fruits and vegetables, as well as some other foods, such as: carrots.
How do kidneys respond to metabolic alkalosis?
The kidneys excrete excess HCO3 − into urine during a metabolic alkalosis. Hypokalemia and kaliuresis are common complications of metabolic alkalosis. Patients with metabolic alkalosis are predisposed to cardiac arrhythmias.
What is the difference between alkalosis and acidosis?
Acidosis refers to an excess of acid in the blood that causes the pH to fall below 7.35, and alkalosis refers to an excess of base in the blood that causes the pH to rise above 7.45.