What does metabolism mean in medication?
Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug by the body. (See also Introduction to Administration and Kinetics of Drugs.) Some drugs are chemically altered by the body (metabolized).
How does drug metabolism work?
Excretion involves elimination of the drug from the body, for example, in the urine or bile. Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms.
What does it mean when the metabolism of a drug is decreased?
If your body metabolizes a drug too slowly, it stays active longer, and may be associated with side effects. Because of this, your doctor may characterize you as being one of four metabolizer types, with respect to a specific enzyme. Poor metabolizers have significantly reduced or non-functional enzyme activity.
What are the four stages of drug metabolization?
Drugs undergo four stages within the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. After a drug is administered, it is absorbed into the bloodstream.
What affects metabolism of a drug?
Dose, frequency, route of administration, tissue distribution and protein binding of the drug affect its metabolism. Pathological factors can also influence drug metabolism, including liver, kidney, or heart diseases.
What are the phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.
What is the main purpose of drug metabolism?
The primary objective of drug metabolism is to facilitate a drug’s excretion by increasing its water solubility (hydrophilicity).
What are the importance and consequences of drug metabolism?
The metabolism of a drug can have important consequences on its therapeutic effect or its toxicity. For this reason, early assessments of metabolic pathways in man help to foresee interindividual variation in drug response and elimination due to metabolism.
What are the two major goals of drug metabolism?
The purpose of metabolism in the body is usually to change the chemical structure of the substance, to increase the ease with which it can be excreted from the body. Drugs are metabolized through various reactions including: Oxidation. Reduction.
What the body does to the drug?
Pharmacokinetics, sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of drug into, through, and out of the body—the time course of its absorption, bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
What is slow metabolism symptoms?
What are the signs of a slow metabolism?
- Unexpected weight changes (weight gain or weight loss)
- Getting tired easily or feeling sluggish.
- Hair loss.
Why do I metabolize drugs so slow?
Because of their genetic makeup, some people process (metabolize) drugs slowly. As a result, a drug may accumulate in the body, causing toxicity. Other people metabolize drugs so quickly that after they take a usual dose, drug levels in the blood never become high enough for the drug to be effective.
How are drugs categorized?
DREs classify drugs in one of seven categories: central nervous system (CNS) depressants, CNS stimulants, hallucinogens, dissociative anesthetics, narcotic analgesics, inhalants, and cannabis.
How are drugs absorbed?
For these reasons, most drugs are absorbed primarily in the small intestine, and acids, despite their ability as un-ionized drugs to readily cross membranes, are absorbed faster in the intestine than in the stomach (for review, see ).
How are drugs excreted from the body?
Most drugs (or metabolites) are excreted by the kidneys. Three process can occur in renal excretion: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and passive reabsorption. Some drugs are eliminated by the liver in the bile and excreted in feces.