What does increased metabolism of a drug mean?

Drug metabolism is the term used to describe the biotransformation of pharmaceutical substances in the body so that they can be eliminated more easily.

What is drug metabolism explain?

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. … The study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine.

What does it mean to be a rapid metabolizer?

Rapid or Ultrarapid Metabolizers. These enzymes are very active, often breaking down drugs before they can have any effect. If you metabolize a drug in this way, you may require a higher dose in order for the drug to work properly.

What is drug metabolism and its importance?

Drug metabolism is the term used to describe the biotransformation of pharmaceutical substances in the body so that they can be eliminated more easily. The majority of metabolic processes that involve drugs occur in the liver, as the enzymes that facilitate the reactions are concentrated there.

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What is the main purpose of drug metabolism?

The primary objective of drug metabolism is to facilitate a drug’s excretion by increasing its water solubility (hydrophilicity).

What are the four stages of drug metabolization?

Drugs undergo four stages within the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. After a drug is administered, it is absorbed into the bloodstream.

What does it mean to be a CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer?

Ultrarapid Metabolizer (UM) – This means there are two copies of a CYP2C19 gene with increased activity. This results in very high CYP2C19 activity. About 5 out of 100 people have this gene status. Certain drugs should be used with caution and patients may need to have their doses of some medications adjusted.

How do you know if you are a poor metabolizer?

Poor metabolizer: Patients who are poor metabolizers experience a very slow breakdown of medications, making side effects more pronounced. That means standard doses of certain medications may not work as intended.

What are the factors that affect drug metabolism?

Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.

Which organ is the primary site for drug metabolism?

Excretion involves elimination of the drug from the body, for example, in the urine or bile. Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism.

What are the consequences of drug metabolism?

In general, the metabolism of a drug decreases its therapeutic effect. The majority of drugs are metabolized to increase their water solubility to allow elimination in urine or bile. However some drugs are metabolized into active compounds first before subsequent metabolism to inactive compounds and be excreted.

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What are the phases of drug metabolism?

Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.

What causes slow drug metabolism?

Underlying health conditions can also influence your drug metabolic rate. Some conditions at greater risk of this are chronic liver disorders, kidney dysfunction, or advanced heart failure.

What are the main pathways of drug metabolism?

Drugs can be metabolized by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration, conjugation, condensation, or isomerization; whatever the process, the goal is to make the drug easier to excrete. The enzymes involved in metabolism are present in many tissues but generally are more concentrated in the liver.

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