Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation (e.g., pharmacogenetics), enterohepatic circulation, nutrition, intestinal flora, or sex differences. In general, drugs are metabolized more slowly in fetal, neonatal and elderly humans and animals than in adults.
What are three things that can affect drug metabolism?
Individual drug metabolism rates are influenced by genetic factors, coexisting disorders (particularly chronic liver disorders and advanced heart failure), and drug interactions (especially those involving induction or inhibition of metabolism). For many drugs, metabolism occurs in 2 phases.
What are the factors affecting drugs?
Factors influencing drug effects
- Type of drug.
- Quantity of drug used.
- Method of drug use.
- Time taken to consume.
- Gender, size and amount of muscle.
- Use of other psycho-active drugs.
- Mood or attitude.
What factors affect drug metabolism in elderly?
Aging results in a number of significant changes in the human liver including reductions in liver blood flow, size, drug-metabolizing enzyme content, and pseudocapillarization. Drug metabolism is also influenced by comorbid disease, frailty, concomitant medicines, and (epi)genetics.
Which factors decrease drug metabolism quizlet?
Factors Affecting drug Metabolism
- Physiological Conditions (age, diet, hormone balance)
- Pathological Conditions (impaired liver or kidney function)
- Genetic Factors (species/strain difference, sex, ethnic polymorphism, individual differences)
- Drug-drug Interactions (enzyme inhibition, enzyme induction)
What causes slow drug metabolism?
Underlying health conditions can also influence your drug metabolic rate. Some conditions at greater risk of this are chronic liver disorders, kidney dysfunction, or advanced heart failure.
Which factor is most important for drug metabolism and why?
Factors that affect drug metabolism
The Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system is the most important pathway in this regard. In general, anything that increases the rate of metabolism (e.g., enzyme induction) of a pharmacologically active metabolite will decrease the duration and intensity of the drug action.
How does disease affect drug response?
The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of drugs can be influenced by the physiological and biochemical changes that occur due to various diseases. These changes can have dramatic influence on the exposure of drugs and lead to drug toxicity or lack of drug efficacy.
What are 4 factors that affect absorption of a drug?
Several factors can affect the absorption of a drug into the body. These include: physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility) drug formulation (e.g. tablets, capsules, solutions)
the physicochemical properties of the drug, such as its:
- lipid solubility.
- molecular size.
- degree of ionization.
How does age affect drug response?
In general, as we age, total body water and muscle mass decrease while percentage of body fat increases. These changes can lead to drugs having a longer duration of action and increased effect. Drugs that were effective may become compounded and overexceed their therapeutic threshhold causing increased side effects.
How does dehydration affect drug distribution?
Dehydrated patients will have drug levels concentrated in the plasma just as all dissolved substances are concentrated by loss of water. For highly protein-bound drugs, lower serum protein levels will result in a higher free (unbound) drug fraction.
Why are elderly more sensitive to drugs?
Increased Sensitivity to Many Drugs: The problems of decreased body size, altered body composition (more fat, less water), and decreased liver and kidney function cause many drugs to accumulate in older people’s bodies at dangerously higher levels and for longer times than in younger people.
What are the two most important organs for drug metabolism?
The principal organs of drug metabolism are the liver and (for orally taken drugs) the small intestine.
Which type of drug can mimic or block the actions of receptors?
Agonist: A drug that mimics the endogenous receptor ligand to activate the receptor to produce a biological response is called as an agonist.
Which are routes of drug excretion?
Drug excretion is the removal of drugs from the body, either as a metabolite or unchanged drug. There are many different routes of excretion, including urine, bile, sweat, saliva, tears, milk, and stool. By far, the most important excretory organs are the kidney and liver.
Which drugs classes interact adversely with cheeses?
Dairy products can interact with several drugs, but aged cheeses in particular are a big no-no if you are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, a class of antidepressants. Fermented, cured, and aged foods are often packed with tyramine, a chemical that causes blood vessels to narrow.