Metabolic alkalosis is defined as elevation of the body’s pH above 7.45. Metabolic alkalosis involves a primary increase in serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration, due to a loss of H+ from the body or a gain in HCO3-.
What happens metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is primary increase in bicarbonate (HCO3−) with or without compensatory increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be high or nearly normal. Common causes include prolonged vomiting, hypovolemia, diuretic use, and hypokalemia.
What are the signs and symptoms of metabolic alkalosis?
Symptoms of alkalosis can include any of the following:
- Confusion (can progress to stupor or coma)
- Hand tremor.
- Muscle twitching.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Numbness or tingling in the face, hands, or feet.
- Prolonged muscle spasms (tetany)
What are the effects of alkalosis?
Acute metabolic acidosis may also cause an increased rate and depth of breathing, confusion, and headaches, and it can lead to seizures, coma, and in some cases death. Symptoms of alkalosis are often due to associated potassium (K+) loss and may include irritability, weakness, and muscle cramping.
What is the common cause of metabolic alkalosis?
Key Points about Metabolic Alkalosis
The most common causes are volume depletion (particularly when involving loss of gastric acid and chloride (Cl) due to recurrent vomiting or nasogastric suction) and diuretic use. Metabolic alkalosis involving loss or excess secretion of Cl is termed chloride-responsive.
How do I know if I have metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is diagnosed by measuring serum electrolytes and arterial blood gases. If the etiology of metabolic alkalosis is not clear from the clinical history and physical examination, including drug use and the presence of hypertension, then a urine chloride ion concentration can be obtained.
How do you manage metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is corrected with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone or with other potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, amiloride, triamterene). If the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism is an adrenal adenoma or carcinoma, surgical removal of the tumor should correct the alkalosis.
What is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis?
Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. Lactate accumulation results from a combination of excess formation and decreased metabolism of lactate. Excess lactate production occurs during states of anaerobic metabolism.
How can you prevent metabolic alkalosis?
Reduce your risk for developing alkalosis by maintaining good health, eating a healthy diet, and staying hydrated. Choosing foods high in nutrients and potassium can help combat electrolyte deficiencies. Nutrients and potassium are primarily found in fruits and vegetables, as well as some other foods, such as: carrots.
How do kidneys respond to metabolic alkalosis?
The kidneys excrete excess HCO3 − into urine during a metabolic alkalosis. Hypokalemia and kaliuresis are common complications of metabolic alkalosis. Patients with metabolic alkalosis are predisposed to cardiac arrhythmias.
Why is metabolic alkalosis bad?
Most severe metabolic alkalosis is of the chloride-responsive form (as in both our patients), the common causes being loss of gastric acid and the administration of loop or thiazide diuretics.  Extreme alkalemia (blood pH greater than 7.65) carries a high risk of complications [Table 3].
Which is worse alkalosis or acidosis?
Without treatment, you acidosis can lead to shock, coma or even death. Metabolic alkalosis, on the other hand, can cause irritability, muscle cramps and twitches. If left untreated, you can experience long-term muscle spasms.
What are the symptoms of too much alkaline in the body?
Too much alkalinity may also agitate the body’s normal pH, leading to metabolic alkalosis, a condition that may produce the following symptoms:
- hand tremors.
- muscle twitching.
- tingling in the extremities or face.
What are three causes of metabolic acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis has three main root causes: increased acid production, loss of bicarbonate, and a reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete excess acids. Metabolic acidosis can lead to acidemia, which is defined as arterial blood pH that is lower than 7.35.
Can metabolic alkalosis cause seizure?
Alkalosis may lead to tetany, seizures, and decreased mental status. Metabolic alkalosis also decreases coronary blood flow and predisposes persons to refractory arrhythmias.
What is the difference between alkalosis and acidosis?
The key difference between acidosis and alkalosis is that acidosis is the condition of having a lower pH than 7.35 in the blood whereas alkalosis is the condition of having a higher pH than 7.45 in blood.