Best answer: What are the factors influencing drug metabolism?

Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.

What factors influence drug metabolism?

Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation (e.g., pharmacogenetics), enterohepatic circulation, nutrition, intestinal flora, or sex differences. In general, drugs are metabolized more slowly in fetal, neonatal and elderly humans and animals than in adults.

What are three things that can affect drug metabolism?

Individual drug metabolism rates are influenced by genetic factors, coexisting disorders (particularly chronic liver disorders and advanced heart failure), and drug interactions (especially those involving induction or inhibition of metabolism). For many drugs, metabolism occurs in 2 phases.

What are the factors affecting drugs?

Factors influencing drug effects

  • Type of drug.
  • Quantity of drug used.
  • Method of drug use.
  • Time taken to consume.
  • Tolerance.
  • Gender, size and amount of muscle.
  • Use of other psycho-active drugs.
  • Mood or attitude.
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What are the factors affecting drug metabolism including stereo chemical aspects?

Factors influencing drug metabolism:

  • Genetic factors: results in differences in the expression of metabolizing enzymes and genetic polymorphism).
  • Physiologic factors: including age, hormonal changes, sex differences, pregnancy and nutritional status.

What are the phases of drug metabolism?

Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.

What factors can affect drug metabolism in an elderly?

Aging results in a number of significant changes in the human liver including reductions in liver blood flow, size, drug-metabolizing enzyme content, and pseudocapillarization. Drug metabolism is also influenced by comorbid disease, frailty, concomitant medicines, and (epi)genetics.

What causes slow drug metabolism?

Underlying health conditions can also influence your drug metabolic rate. Some conditions at greater risk of this are chronic liver disorders, kidney dysfunction, or advanced heart failure.

What organ is responsible for drug metabolism?

Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms.

What is metabolism process?

Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body’s cells that change food into energy. … Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism. Thousands of metabolic reactions happen at the same time — all regulated by the body — to keep our cells healthy and working.

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What organ in the body is responsible for drug and xenobiotic metabolism?

The liver is the organ responsible for the majority of drug metabolism through the actions of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme group (Phase 1 reactions) and the enzymes of conjugation (Phase 2 reactions) [1].

What are 4 factors that affect absorption of a drug?

Several factors can affect the absorption of a drug into the body. These include: physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility) drug formulation (e.g. tablets, capsules, solutions)

the physicochemical properties of the drug, such as its:

  • lipid solubility.
  • molecular size.
  • degree of ionization.

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How does age affect drug response?

In general, as we age, total body water and muscle mass decrease while percentage of body fat increases. These changes can lead to drugs having a longer duration of action and increased effect. Drugs that were effective may become compounded and overexceed their therapeutic threshhold causing increased side effects.

What are 2 internal factors that affect metabolism of a drug?

Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.

What are the factors influencing xenobiotic metabolism?

Genetic variation includes gender, epigenetics, and polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing components such as Phase I and II enzymes, transporters, receptors, and ion channels. Age is also another host factor that can have physiological effects and thus affect xenobiotic metabolism and elimination.

How does environment affect drug metabolism?

Results: Various environmental contaminants like pesticides effectively alter drug metabolism at various levels under the influence of pharmacogenomics, which interferes with pharmacokinetics of drug metabolism.

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